Project Report on Population Explosion
consist of all the individuals of the same species occupying a
Particular geographical area at a given time. It ranks
subordinate to species. A species may have a single population or many
populations confined to distinct area. The present population of our
country is 102.7 billions. In the present, the population of our country
is increasing. It is very dangerous and when our natural resources are
going on decreasing. The main cause of high rate of growth rate is a
widening gap between birth rate and death rate. The growing urban
population created many problems for urban areas as well as rural areas.
1. It has led to the storage of food, raw materials and wide range of
2. It has led to pollution and environmental imbalance.
areas, the urban growing population has led to
1. To decrease in the forest lands and
2. Left baneful influence on the fertility of the soil.
If we want to
develop our country and want to raises the living standard of the people
then we should reduced our birth rate.
people of a country is called census. Census is an official numeration of
population after every ten years in India, along with certain social and
economic statistics. This not only helps us in knowing the total number of
population but also the latest distribution of population, sex ratio, age
composition, occupational structure and literacy of a particular country.
education aimed at making the students aware of
1. The consequences of uncontrolled population growth;
2. The advantage of a small family norm;
3. The growth, distribution and density of population; and
4. The relation of population to the standards of life.
scientific study of human population is called demography. It deals
with three phenomena:—
1. Change in population ,i.e. growth or decline.
2. Composition of the population, i.e. age group and sex ratio.
3. Distribution of population in space.
OF POPULATION STUDY
significance of studying population lies mainly in estimating the total
manpower available for production and total amount of goods and service
required for their consumption. After this, the studying of population is
very useful from various points of view:
1. By studying
population, even after ten years, tell us the exact number of people in
our country only by knowing the number of people living in our country. We
can know where we are going and what steps we should take to avoid the
coming catastrophe as a result of the unrestricted rise of population.
2. We can know the distribution of population in our country and where
more emphasis is to be laid for the development and uplift of the area.
can know the sex ratio in our country and take proper steps for the
welfare of the weaker section of the society including both woman and
4. We can
know the age composition of the people and how much burden of the
dependent population (children and old people) the working population has
know as to how many people are engaged in the primary, secondary and
tertiary occupation and what steps we should take to bring about a change
in occupational structure of our country.
6. It is only
by studying population that we can know the level of literacy in our
country and think what steps we should take to remove illiteracy from our
7. It is only
by studying the data of our population, that we can know how many
adolescents (people in the age group of 10 to 19) are there in our country
and what special steps we can take to bring them up so that they may prove
good citizens for the country.
8. It is by
only studying population that we can chalk out our National Population
Policy and think of measures both for containing the rise of our
population and take desired methods for its welfare.
density is the number of individuals per unit area or per unit volume at a
given time. The distribution of human population is not uniform throughout
the world only about one–third of the total land area is inhabited. Of the
inhabited areas, some are thickly populated, others sparsely. This depends
upon the availability of the requirements of life. About 56% of the total
world population resides in Asia alone. Japan is the most thickly
populated country and Australia is the most thinly populated. In India,
Kerala is the most thickly populated state.
Increasing the Population in our
OF INCREASE IN
Increase in population density creates many
problems. Per captia income and availablity of natural resources such as
water, land, minerals, fuel etc. decreases. All the basic necessities of
life are adversely affected. These necessities include space, food,
employment, education, medical aid, sanitation and essential goods.
1. SPACE:— New towns and
cities are coming up to accommodate the growing population. This has put a
great strain on agriculture land and forests. Clearing of forests for
habitation has caused new problems, particularly soil erosion and floods.
FOOD:— Large families with
moderate means are unable to provide adequate and balanced diet to the
children. The later suffer from malnutrition and grow into less fit members
of the society.
EMPLOYMENT:— Rise in population
has resulted in large scale unemployment. New employment schemes introduced
by government have failed to absorb the fast growing numbers.
in population has led to rush in educational institutions and to lowering of
educational standards. A large family is unable to afford higher education
to the children.
AID: --- Proper medical facilities are also beyond the reach of large
families. State too is unable to look after the health of the ever growing
Rise in human population has
caused pollution of environment/water, air and land. This is seriously
affecting the human health.
7. ESSENTIAL GOODS:--Increase
in population leads to shortage of essential household goods and result in
hike in their prices.
The above factors have caused mental tension and rise in heart disease.
Crowding leads violence. Violence often erupts at crowded music/drama
concerts, sports events and in traffic jams.
FACTORS CONTROLLING POPULATION
Three kinds of factors control human population density: --geographic,
socio-economic and demographic.
GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS:- These factors include climate, availability of
natural resources and means of transportation.
CLIMATE: -The regions with favourable climate have a higher population
density. Arctic and Antarctic regions are uninhabited by humans because they
are extremely cold and unfit for agriculture. The desert areas are less
populated due to hot, dry climate not conducive to agriculture. The tropical
lands are well populated because their warm, moist climate is suitable for
human beings as well as for agriculture.
2. AVAILABILITY OF NATURAL
natural resources that effect population density include water, soil, fuel
WATER:--Human settlements are located near sources of water. Many
cities are on the banks of river and lakes.
SOIL (EDAPHIC FACTOR):-- The soils of river valleys are very fertile
and most suitable for farming. This is the reason for high population
density in the Indo-Genetics plains and Indus valley.
FUEL AND MINERALS:--Industrial cities have come up in localities
where fuel and minerals have been found. Bokaro, Bhilai and Rourkela are
some of such cities.
MEANS OF TRANSPORT:--Means of transport affect human population in two
They bring about redistribution and dispersal of population. People from one
state migrate temporarily or permanently to other states or foreign
countries for work. This practice may results in changes in population
density or lead to new settlements.
They enable people to live in localities far away from the sites of natural
resources. The latter can be made available to human population anywhere by
SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS:--Urbanisation and acquisition of land for
public well fare are important socio-economic factor which change the
pattern of population distribution, these factors create serious problems
URBANISATION: People migrate from rural areas to cities because of
better employment prospectus, educational facilities and has services.
Increasing urbanisation has created a number of problems like environment,
pollution, sanitation and sewage disposal, traffic problems, housing
problems, disease, and mental health etc.
USE OF LAND FOR PUBLIC WELL FARE:--Use of agriculture land for roads,
rail lines, canals, industries, educational institution, hospitals, offices,
and houses etc.
DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS:--The birth and death rates are the major factor
that determine the population growth of a country. The birth rate is
regwated in human socio-economic factors such as status of women, family
composition, age of women of marriage etc. The death rate depends on public
hygiene, nutritional status, type of employment, medical facilities etc. the
birth and death rates vary from region to region and from time to time,
depending upon environmental factors.
There are many
factors, which put the effects on the population due to which our population
increases. These are the factors such as birth rate, death rate,
immigration, literacy, age structure, sex ratio and environmental factor.
RATE:--It can be expressed as the number of birth per thousand human in
the population per year. In the starting of 20th century the
birth rate was 49.2 (per 1000) and it become 26.1 (per 1000) in the end of
RATE:--It can be expressed as the
number of deaths per 1000 human in the population per year. Birth and death
rate both are reduced but birth rate reduced very fastly. It is 42.6 (per
1000) in the starting of 20th century and after decreasing it
become 8.7(per 1000) at the end of century. It is due to the protection from
natural risk, better transport, storage facility and control of communicable
IMMIGRATION:--Immigration is the
entry of additional peoples into a population from outside.
is the most important factor due to which our population increases because
educated people can understand the importance of small family. In India,
literacy rate increase from 5%(1901) to 65.35%(2001) in Kerala, the
percentage of literacy is maximum from all states. It is 90%. There is a
relation between illustration and growth of population where are literacy
rate is minimum there population.
STRUCTURE:--Age structure of
population can divided into three parts:
Below 15 years
old child, 15-59 years old people and above 59 years old people, The group
of 15-59 years old people is known as productive population and below 15
years old child and above 59 years old people are called dependent
population. In 2001, the percentage of working population was 58.7% and
dependent population was 41.3%. But still the percentage of dependent
population was quite large and this large percentage of dependent
population, especially children would naturally have deep repercussions on
us. The standard of living would naturally fall and all would be spent by
the working population on feeding themselves and their dependents. In such a
case, very little would be left for education of children. There would be
very little scope of saving for the rainy day.
RATIO:-- The number of females
per thousand males in the population is called sex ratio. According to the
census of 2001, the sex ratio was 933 females to 1000 males. In our country,
the sex ratio remained favorable to males except in Kerala where in 2001
this ratio was 1058 females to 1000 males and in Pondicherry where the sex
ratio was 1001 females to 1000 males.
FACTORS:--Food and shelter (space) are the most important environmental
factors that effect the size and density of population. Population tends to
increase so long as food and shelter are available. If shelter is scare,
fewer individuals can be accommodated and the rest are expose to enemies and
weather. Natural calamities such as drought, cloud bursts flood, fire,
earthquake, volcanic eruption, and storms etc. may cause sudden change in
the environment by destroying food and shelter. Adrastic change in the
environment can destabilize or even exterminate a population.
FOR INCREASE IN POPULATION
factors that contributed to the declined in death rate and the consequent
rise in population are:--
PROTECTION FROM NATURAL RISKS:--
Living in houses protected man from wild animal, heat, cold, rain, floods,
and storms. Life in villages, towns, and cities provided further security.
ADVANCEMENT IN AGRICULTURE:--Improved
agriculture techniques increased food output for rising population.
facilities made food available all the year round. It also prevented
or minimized loss by grain pests.
system rapidly carried food from surplus regions to sear city regions and
governmental measures such as public distribution system checking or
hoarding, ensure food supply to all.
OF DISEASE:--Control of
communicable disease with antibiotics elimination of epidemics and sound
public health measures reduce the death rate and increased the human
developing countries are often due to respiratory and digestive tract
infection particularly in infants. Such deaths are easily avoidable with the
use of clean water and nutritious food and with basic education in hygiene.
practicable and direct method of control population is to reduce the birth
rate. This can be achieved by education and family planning.
EDUCATION:--People particularly those in reproductive age group, should
be educated about the advantages of small family and consequent benefit to
the nation as a whole.
PLANNING:--Birth rate can be
reduced by family planning measures, such as use of contraceptives and
pills, sterilization and termination of pregnancy.
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