Project Report/Essay - Indian Culture
Dance, Music and Art
The Food We Wear
Indian Culture Report
India has one of the richest and most exciting
cultural tradition in the world our culture goes back several thousands year.
That is why ours is known as one of the oldest civilization in the world. India
is a land of festivals. There is hardly any month of the year without any
festival. Therefore the festivals also play an important in our life & they
remains our culture evergreen similarly there are many states in our India, all
having their own traditional dress& food also because of all this about India it
has be said that India has unity in diversity. In this project will learn about
the varieties of our India & I will try to attract you towards the Indian
culture or a great culture.
Religions in India
India, being a secular country does not have any
state religion. The state of India allows for freedom of faith, worship &
religion. People of many different religions live in our country. They are free
to follow & preach the religion of their choice. Among the major religion in
India, Hinduism is the largest, followed by Islam, Christianity, Sikhism,
Buddism, Jainism &
Hinduism is among the most ancient religions
of India. The followers of Hinduism account for over 80% of India's total
population. The holy books & scriptures of Hinduism include the Vedas, the
Upanishads, the Puranas, the Bhagavad Gita & the epics like the Ramayana & the
Hindus believe in one supreme God but they
worship God in different avatars or forms. Hinduism has a rich & varied
philosophy. They have been many well-known Hindu thinkers & reformers like Adi
Dayanand Saraswati, &
Swami Vivekananda. They all have tried to
teach us how to be better human beings.
The followers of Islam
are known as Muslim. They are second largest religions community in
India accounting for over 11% of her total population. Muslims believe in only
one God of or Allah. Prophet Mohammad is believed to be the last & the greatest
of the Prophets. He was born in 570 A.D in Mecca. He preached & spread Islam.
The Koran is a holy book of the Muslims. The devout Muslim has five duties
belief in one God; prayers five time a
day; the giving of alms; a month’s fast every year; and a pilgrimage to Mecca
atleast once in life time. The Muslims do not allow idol worship. Neither do
they allow any picture of Allah.
Christians comprise about
two & a half % of India’s population. Christianity was founded by Lord
Jesus Christ. He was born at Bethlehem in Israel near two thousand year ago.
Jesus taught the people the importance of peace, love & compassion. The
teachings of Jesus Christ are contained in the holy book, Bible Christians
worship in a Church. The symbol of a Church is cross signifies the crucifixion
of Lord Jesus Christ.
The Sikhs constitute a
little the 2% of India’s population. Sikhism, which emerged in the15th
century, was founded by Guru Nanak Dev. Sikhism tried to bridge the gap between
Hinduism & Islam. Guru Nanak Dev said that the God for Hindus & Muslims was the
same. Sikhs worship in a Gurudwara. Their holy book is called the Guru Nanak Dev
& the nine Guru who came after him.
Buddhism originated in India
and its follower’s formless then 1% of India’s population. The founder of
Buddhism was Lord Gautam Buddha. He was the son of an India, King. Who lived
2500 years ago. His childhood name Siddharatha. He gave up his princely life &
went out for true knowledge. At last he become enlightened under the Bodhi tree
in Gaya. From that day he become known as the Buddha or the enlightened one.
Buddha believed in non- violence. He thought that every human being must follow
the middle path & adopt good behaviour & simple habits. Buddism spread to China,
Sri Lanka, Japan &many other countries in Asia.
The Jains form about half of
a percent of India’s population Jainism was founded by Mahavira. He lived
about 2,500 years ago. He preached Ahimsa, right conduct, right faith and
tolerance. The followers of Jainism are strict vegetarians & do not hurt living
The followers of Zoroastrianism are called Parsis.
Zoroastrianism was founded by the great Persian. Prophet Zoroaster or
Zarathushtra. He preached that there is a continuous battle going on between the
forces of good and evil. And in the end God always triumphs or wins over evils.
The parsis worship in a fire Temple. The holy book of parsis is Zend Avesta.
Languages in India
There are as many as 1,652
languages & dialects spoken in different parts of India. It is said that in
India a dialect changes every thirty or 40km.
The constitution of
recognizes 18 major languages they are: -
Assamese (2) Bangla
Kannada (6) Konkani
Malayalam (8) Manipuri
Marathi (10) Nepali
Punjabi (12) Tamil
Sindhi (14) Kasmiri
Sanskrit (16) Oriya
Of these Sanskrit & Tamil are
the oldest languages. The scripts of all these languages except Kasmiri, Sindhi
& Urdu are written from left to right. The script of Kasmiri, Sindhi & Urdu are
written from right to left.
Hindi is the official language of India. Before
Independence English was the official language of India.
Dance and Music in India
Dance & Music are an important
part of the culture of our country. The people tell stories about their history
through these forms of arts.
In India there are two main
types of dances, folk dance & classical dance.
Folk dances are performed by a group of people.
These dances are performed on special occasions. The occasion may be a feast, a
festival or a wedding. Through these dances, people express their joy. In India
there are numerous folk dances. The most well-known folk dances & their areas
are listed below.
Bhangra & gidda
Jammu & Kashmir
Classical dance are entirely
different from folk dances. They require training & prachce. They are based on
different beats & rhythms. Each moment & gesture of the dancer has some meaning.
The dancers wear special costumers like masks & head dresses.
The main classical dances &
their areas are given below.
Perhaps these dances were
performed in temples or place in the past. Now a day we can see these in films &
Classical music has a long &
rich tradition in India. It is said that saint Narada, son of saraswati, taught
music to men. The earliest book on India music is Rikaprahohakhaya. There are
two main schools or divisions of music in India. The north India school is
cornatic. Both Hindustani & carnatic styles of music are based on ragas. There
are different ragas for different times,
even for seasions. In the past there were great singers like tansen,
haridas, &Baiju Bawra.Tensen, a great singer in the court of Mughal Emperor
Akbar has composed many ragas.
Instrumental Music in India
Instrumental Music is
also very popular in our country. The popular musical instruments
are the flite, shanai, sitar, harmonium, tabla, sarangi, veena, moidangam &
dhalak. Some of the famous instrumental musicians of our country are Ravi
Shanker, Allo Rakha, Ali Akbar Khan, Amjad Ali Khan, Bismillah Khan, Hari Prasad
Choursia & Zakir Husian.
Painting in India
Indian Painting has a style of
its own. There have been artists in India for thousands of years. Kings employed
artists & empeross to decorate their places & temples. Some kings were very
found of art of & they employed artists even from other countries. For example,
when mughals first came to India they bought with them the persain artists. They
painted landscapes, hunting scenes, scenes from the royal durbars & battle
fields. However, the most famous & the finest painting can be seen in the Ajanta
caves. These paintings are nearly fifteen hundred years old. They were painted
by the Boudha Bhikshus or priests. These paintings look bright even today. These
painting at Ajanta are called Frescos.
When people think of India,
they think of its architecture. India has an amazing variety of architecture.
The ruins of the Indus valley civilization tell us how advanced we were even
5000 ago. The stupas of sanchi & sarnath, built by the emperor Ashok & his
successors, are the finest specimens of Indian architecture.
The Kailash temple at Ellora is
perhaps the greatest wonder of its kind. The whole temple has been carved out
from a single rock. There is a long list of ancient temples which speak about
their beauty. Mention must be made of the temple of Konark, Puri, Khajuarho,
Bellur, Thanjavur, Tripati, Chennai and Madurai.
The Meenakshi temple at Madurai
has a huge hall with one thousand pillars. Therefore, it is called the hall of a
thousand pillars. Each pillar has been carved with sculptures which tell the
stories about the lives of the Gods.
The Turks and Mughals
introduced the special style of central Asian architecture in our country. These
styles were combined with ours and thus resulted in a new style of architectural
designs. Some of the examples of this new
style of architectural designs are the Gol Gumbaz of Bijapur, the Jama Masjid,
the Red Fort and the Humanyun Tomp of Delhi, and the Taj Mahal of Agra.
The Qutab Minar is one of the
word’s finest examples of tower building. Built in the thirteenth century, it
rises over 230 feet.
The forts of Agra, Gwalior and
Chittorgarh are very strong and huge structures.
With the coming of the
Europeans, our architecture grew further. The British built huge churches and
official building. Examples of the British architecture in India are
the St. Xavier Church In Goa the Victoria Memorial at Kolkata, the
present Rashtrapati Bhavan and the Parliament House in New Delhi.
The Victoria Memorial at
Kolkata is one of the most impressive monuments in India. Made of white marble,
it reminds us of the Europwan and Mughal architecture. It took fifteen years to
build the Victoria Memorial. It has portraits and statues of almost all the main
figure in British-India history.
Since independence, Indian
architecture has made much progress. We have huge and beautiful buildings,
temples and railway stations in almost every big city. The
Assembly buildings of Mumbai and Jaipur and New Delhi municipal
corporation office building are the example of
new architectural designs. The
Lotus Temple of Delhi is a valuable treasure of Indian architecture.
Scientists in India
India is proud of having
many scholars and scientists who have made great contributions in science,
mathematics, astronomy and medical sciences. Aryabhatta & Varahamihir were
celebrated Indian astronomers. They could study the heavently bodies like
stars with great accuracy. Beside an astronomer, Aryabhatta was also a great
mathematician. Indian’s first satellite, Aryabhatta was christened after him.
Charaka & Sushruta, were famous
physicians of ancient India. Charaka is called the ‘king of Indian physician’.
Sushruta was an expert surgeon. He is called the ‘father of plastic surgery’.
Their writing are valued even today. The Truks & Mughals also made valuable
contributions to medical science. Their system of medicine in know as Unani.
In the field of mathematic, the
concept of zero was given by Indian thinkers. The numbers 1 to 10 & the decimal
system are also entirely Indian. The Arab trader learnt these mathematical
systems from Indians & carried them to Europe. The Arabs called these numbers
Today, Indians scientists are known through out
the world. Indian scientists like C.V roman, J.C Bose, Homi Bhabha & Vikram
sarabhai have made significant contribution to the growth of modern science.
The food we eat
Our country is very big. There are 26 States
and 6 Union Territories in our
country. People eat different kind of food in different state & union
territories. In some parts people like to eat rice. There are other parts where
most of the people prefer millet (Jower
or Bajra). Thus, wheat, rice, & millet
are the most popular food grains. Beside the food grains, people eat
things like pulses, sugar, fruits, vegetable, egg, meat, fish, edible oil, bread
Generally people eat those foods items more
which are grow in that area.
In the northern state of India
like Punjab, Haryana, Utter pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and wheat is the main foods
of the people.
In desert sate of Rajasthan,
millets like jowar & corn are eaten beside wheat.
People living in Bihar, Bengal,
Orissa, Assam & also the states of southern India generally prefer rice. People
near sea cousts eat rice with fish.
Cereals & lentils like ragi &
dals are eaten through out the country. Similarly, vegetables & fruits are also
eaten all over the country.
Many people prefer meat, eggs &
fish. People who eat meat & meat products are called non-vegetarians people who
do not eat meat, egg, & fish are called vegetarians.
Let us see some special food
eaten by the people in certain parts of our country.
The people of Kashmir prefer
to eat rice, fish & karan ka sag. The popular food of the people of Punjabi is
makki ki roti & sarson ka sag. The people of Bengal & other eastern states eat
rice & fish. Their favorite sweet dishes are Rasgulla & Sandesh. The people of
Gujrat & Maharashtra like to eat Rice, Dal, Curds, Vegetables & Papads.
Sambhar, Dosa, Idli, Rasam &
Uthapam are favorite dishes of the people of south India.
India is famous all over the
world for its spices. Spices are used to flavour different dishes. Some of the
common spices are saffron, turmeric, chilies, ginger, conander, cloves, cardamom
The country produces a rich
variety of fruits. Himachal pradesh is famous for apples, Gujrat for chikus &
Bihar for litchis. Mangos & bananas are found throughout the country. Orange of
Nagpur is famous all over the world.
India has a vast population. In
many part of the country sufficient foods is not available. So our Government
sends foods articles to these areas. Fruits &
vegetable are also transported from the place they are grown in plenty to
The central government has a
separate tood & civil supplies ministry. It arranges the food grains for the
people all over the country. People get the food grains & other food articles
from fair price shop or ration shop at reasonable price.
The dresses we wear in India
The surface of the land is
different in different parts of our country. People living in different parts of
India eat different type of foods.
Similarly, the climate is not
the same in all parts of our country. Some places have very hot summer & very
cold winters. Place near the sea have the same climate throughout the years.
Therefore people living in different areas ware different types of dresses.
However, there are some dresses women & men, which are common & very popular
throughout the country.
Dresses of Women
The most common dresses of
women in India are saree, salwar-kameez, blouse, skirt (ghagra) & a shawl (odhani)
to cover the head.
The pattern & style of wearing
a saree varies from state to state.
Let us see the popular dresses
of women in different states of India.
Salwar-Kameez with Dupatta is
the popular dress of women in Punjabi Ghagra-Kurta with Odhani in Haryana,
Ghagra-Choli in Uttar predesh, Ghagra-Blouse with Odhani in Rajasthan, Lehnga &
Choli in Gujrat & Baku in Sikkim.
Dresses of Men
The dresses of men also differ
depending upon the place they live in. The most common dresses of men are
Trousers, Shirts, Dhoti-Kurta, Dhoti-Shirt, Kurta-Pyjama and Kurta-Lungi.
In many states, people still
follow their traditional style of wearing dresses. Achkan with a turban is
popular in Rajasthan; Chundar Pyjama and Jecket are common in Gujart and Dhoti-Kurta
in Utter Pradesh and West-Bengal.
Trubans and Caps are a part of
Indian mans headgerar. But the style of tying a turban varies from state to
The people of Utter Pradesh and
Gujrat use Gandhi cap to cover the head. The cap of Himachal Pradesh is famous
for its beautiful embroidery.
Festivals of India
India is a land of festivals.
There is hardly any month of the year without a festival. We all celebrate
festivals like Holi, Diwali, Id, Onam, Bihu, Guruparb, Chirstmas and Pongal with
great Pomp and Slow.
A festival is a day of
rejoicing. People wear new clothes and prepare many types of sweet and other
Some festivals are celebrated
throughout the country. Other festivals are celebrated only in some parts of the
Festivals are mainly of three kinds:
- National Festivals
- Religious Festivals
- Harvest Festivals
Now some discussion about these
festivals in detail
National Festivals are
celebrated by all the people in country. Independence Day, Republic day, Gandhi
Jayanti are our National Festivals.
Independence Day is
celebrated on 15th August every year. The prime Minister of India
hoists the National Flag at Red Fort & addresses the people. The National Flag
is also hoisted in schools, offices & other important places throughout the
country. On 15th August 1947, India got freedom from the British
Republic Day is
celebrated on 26th January every year. A big parade is taken out at
Rajpath on this day. The President of India takes the salute of the Republic Day
parade Children who won awards for bravery also take part in the parade.
Tableaux from different states are a big attraction of parade. We also remember
the sacrifices made by the freedom fighters on this day. On 26th
January, 1950, India becomes a Republic.
Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated on 2nd
October every year. We celebrate this day to mark the birthday of Mahatma
Gandhi, the Father of the Nation. Prayers are
held at his Samadhi at Rajghat in
New Delhi. People spin on Charkha & sing the Ramdhum. The whole country pays
homage to the Father of the Nation on this day.
Religious Festivals are
celebrated by the people of different religions. Some of the important
religious of festivals are Dussehra, Diwali, Id, Christmas, Ganesh Chathurthi, &
Dussehra is celebrated
throughout the country. It is a ten-day festival. Ramlila is staged for nine
days. On the tenth day the effigies of Ravana, Kumbhkaran and Meghnath are
burnt. This marks the day when Lord Rama killed the ten-headed demon king
Ravana. This festival marks the victory of good over evil. That is why it is
known as Vijay Dahmi.
Diwali is called the Festival of lights.
It marks the return of Rama to Ayodhya after 14 years of exile. People express
their joy by lighting oil lamps (Diyas), candles & electric bulbs. People clean
their homes & wear new clothes. Lord Ganesh & Goddess Lakshmi are worshiped on
Diwali night. The children play with crackers.
Business men & traders celebrate this day as a
NEW YEAR DAY.
Id-Ul-Fitter is an important Muslim
festival Id is celebrated at the end of Ramzan. Ramzan is the month when Muslims
fast from sunrise to sunset. On Id, Muslims wear new clothes & offer namaz in
the Mosque Namaz is a form of worship of Good. They embrace each other &
exchange greetings. They greet each other saying ‘Id MUBARAK’ Sewain, a special
sweet dish, is prepared by the Muslims on this day.
Christmas is celebrated every day on 2
year on 25th December by Christians. It marks the birthday of Jesus
Chirst. Christians go to church at
midnight or in the morning for offering prayers. A small Christmas tree is set
up in every house. This tree is beautifully decorated with paper stars, bell &
coloured glass balls. Children believe that Santa Claus leaved gifts for them
under the Christmas tree
The birthday of the ten G. Sikh Gurus are
celebrated by the Sikhs as Gurupards. The birthday of Guru Nanak, Guru Teg
Bahadur, Guru Arjan Dev, & Guru Gobind Singh are celebrated with great pomp &
show. Huge processions are taken out. The Sikhs go to Gurudwaras & listen to the
Gurubani from their Holy Book, Guru Granth Sahib.
Durga Pooja is the most popular festival
of Bengal. It lasts for ten days. For nine days, people worship ten armed images
of goddess Durga, the Goddess of Shakti. On tenth day, images are immersed in a
holy river. Thousands of people participate in this festival.
Ganesh Pooja is celebrated in Maharashtra.
People of all communities participate in it with great enthusiasm. Coloured
idols of lord Ganesh are taken home.
The birthday of Gautam Buddha
is celebrated as Buddha Purnima. Special prayers are offered
by the Buddhists on this day.
Harvest Festivals are celebrated to mark
the changes in seasons. Harvest is the time of gathering ripe crops.
Holi, as harvest festival, is
mainly celebrated in North India. It is called the festival of colours. It
marks the end of winter.
Pongal is the harvest festival of Tamil
Nadu. It is celebrated for three days. Bhogi Ponal, the first day, is celebrated
by worshipping the sun. Surya pongal, the second day, is celebrated as a family
Onam is the harvest festival of Kerala.
People believe that kind Mahadali visits the country on this day. People
decorated their homes with coloured lights at night.
Baisakhi is the harvest festival of
Punjab. It is celebrated in the month of April. People express their joy with
the beat of dholak & perform the popular Bhangra dance.
Bihu is the harvest festival of Assam.
It is celebrated three times a year. Young boys & girls in typical Assamese
dresses perform the special Bihu dance.
There are many other festivals
celebrated in various parts of the country. A list of such festivals is given
Reason for celebration
It marks deep affection
between brother & sister. On this day sister ties a Rakhi on the wrist of
It is celebrated in the
honour of Saraswati, the goddess of learning. It is a seasonal festival
Christians fast on this
day. Jesus Christ was crucified on this day.
It is the birthday of
It is the mourning
festivals of the Muslims.
It is the birthday &
death anniversary of Prophet Mohammad
It is the birthday of
lord Krishna. It is celebrated all over India.
It is celebrated in
honour of Lord Shiva
It is the birthday of
Chacha Nehru. It is celebrated on 14th November every year.
It is celebrated on 5th
September. It is the birthday of Dr. Radha Krishnan.
Festivals bring people of different religions
and regions close to each other. They speak of the cultural unity of our